What defines Responsible Investment?
- Importance of environmental, social and governance (ESG) factors
- Long-term sustainable returns
- Stable, well-functioning and well governed social, environmental and economic systems
Discover the 7 Strategies
An approach where leading or best-performing investments within a universe, category, or class are selected or weighted based on ESG criteria. This approach involves the selection or weighting of the best performing or most improved companies or assets as identified by ESG analysis7, within a defined investment universe. This approach includes Best-in-Class, best-in-universe, and best-effort.
Engagement activities and active ownership through voting of shares and engagement with companies on ESG matters. This is a long-term process, seeking to influence behaviour or increase disclosure. Engagement and voting on corporate governance only is necessary, but not sufficient to be counted in this strategy.
The explicit inclusion by asset managers of ESG risks and opportunities into traditional financial analysis and investment decisions based on a systematic process and appropriate research sources. This type covers explicit consideration of ESG factors alongside financial factors in the mainstream analysis of investments. The integration process focuses on the potential impact of ESG issues on company financials (positive and negative), which in turn may affect the investment decision.
Environmental issues concern any aspect of a company’s activity that affects the environment in a positive or negative manner. Examples include greenhouse gas emissions, renewable energy, energy efficiency, resource depletion, chemical pollution, waste management, water management, impact on biodiversity,etc.
Social issues vary from community-related aspects, such as the improvement of health and education, to workplace-related issues, including the adherence to human rights, non-discrimination and stakeholder engagement. Examples include labour standards (along the supply chain, child labour, forced labour), relations with local communities, talent management, controversial business practices (weapons, conflict zones), health standards, freedom of association, etc.
Governance issues concern the quality of a company’s management, culture, risk profile and other characteristics. It includes the board accountability and their dedication towards, and strategic management of, social and environmental performance. Furthermore, it emphasises principles, such as transparent reporting and the realisation of management tasks in a manner that is essentially free of abuse and corruption. Examples include corporate governance issues (executive remuneration, shareholder rights, board structure), bribery, corruption, stakeholder dialogue, lobbying activities, etc.
An approach that excludes specific investments or classes of investment from the investible universe such as companies, sectors, or countries. This approach systematically excludes companies, sectors, or countries from the permissible investment universe if involved in certain activities based on specific criteria. Common criteria include weapons, pornography, tobacco and animal testing. Exclusions can be applied at individual fund or mandate level, but increasingly also at asset manager or asset owner level, across the entire product range of assets. This approach is also referred to as ethical- or values based exclusions, as exclusion criteria are typically based on the choices made by asset managers or asset owners.
Impact Investments are investments made into companies, organisations and funds with the intention to generate social and environmental impact alongside a financial return. Impact investments can be made in both emerging and developed markets, and target a range of returns from below market-to-market rate, depending upon the circumstances*. Investments are often project-specific, and distinct from philanthropy, as the investor retains ownership of the asset and expects a positive financial return. Impact investment includes microfinance, community investing, social business/entrepreneurship funds and French fonds solidaires.
*Global Impact Investing Network (GIIN), ‘What is Impact Investing?”, http://www.thegiin.org/cgi-bin/iowa/investing/index.html,2012
Screening of investments according to their compliance with international standards and norms. This approach involves the screening of investments based on international norms or combinations of norms covering ESG factors. International norms on ESG are those defined by international bodies such as the United Nations (UN).
Investment in themes or assets linked to the development of sustainability. Thematic funds focus on specific or multiple issues related to ESG. Sustainability themed investments inherently contribute to addressing social and/or environmental challenges such as climate change, eco-efficiency and health. Funds are required to have an ESG analysis or screen of investments in order to be counted in this approach.